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ScienceDaily -- the Internet's premier science news web site -- brings you the latest discoveries in science, health & medicine, the environment, space, technology, and computers, from the world's leading universities and research institutions. Updated several times a day, Science Daily also offers free search of its archive of more than 80,000 stories, as well as related articles, images, videos, books, and journal references in hundreds of different topics, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, mathematics, physics, and more.
Nearly half of previously employed adult survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome were jobless one year after hospital discharge, and are estimated to have lost an average of $27,000 in earnings, new research concludes.
The air we breathe out can help us improve the quality of the air we breathe in. But to do so, one needs a reliable way to calculate the concentration of carbon dioxide we produce indoors. Researchers have developed a new computation method that uses well-established concepts from the study of human metabolism and exercise physiology to significantly improve how this important data is derived.
Although most topical steroids prescribed to patients were generic in a new American study, there was a sharp increase in Medicare Part D and out-of-pocket spending for elderly patients taking these drugs.
Conventional wisdom has held that tropical forest growth will dramatically slow with high levels of rainfall. But researchers turned that assumption on its head with an unprecedented review of data from 150 forests that concluded just the opposite.
Analysis of the drugs that were approved for use by the NHS Cancer Drugs Fund (CDF) in England has shown that the fund was not good value for patients and society and may have resulted in patients suffering unnecessarily from toxic side effects of the drugs.
Testosterone makes men less likely to realize when they're wrong, a new study shows. The researchers found that men given doses of testosterone performed more poorly on a test designed to measure cognitive reflection than a group given a placebo.
A five-year study has found the mechanism responsible for repairing damage to mitochondrial DNA. This discovery could pave the way for new treatments for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, say the researchers. This research may also have important implications for clinical advances in so called 'three-parent baby' mitochondrial donation.
In an analysis of Medicare billing data submitted by more than 2,300 United States physicians, researchers have calculated the average number of surgical slices, or cuts, made during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS), a procedure that progressively removes thin layers of cancerous skin tissue in a way that minimizes damage to healthy skin and the risks of leaving cancerous tissue behind.
Researchers have made the first detailed map of the regions into which the brain of one of the most closely-related organisms to the vertebrates is divided and which could give us an idea of what our ancestor was like.
Recent years have witnessed significant debates on proteins in milk, in particular the differences between A1 and A2 proteins. However, there is still no scientific evidence to determine whether milk with one protein type is healthier than the other.
Using a specialized electron microscope outfitted with a pattern generator, scientists turned an imaging instrument into a lithography tool that could be used to create and study materials with new properties.
The bright object seen in this Hubble image is a single and little-studied star named TYC 3203-450-1, located in the constellation of Lacerta (The Lizard). The star is much closer than the much more distant galaxy.
Zika virus can persist in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), lymph nodes and colorectal tissue of infected rhesus monkeys for weeks after the virus has been cleared from blood, urine and mucosal secretions, according to a study.
Researchers have found that a material which incorporates atomically thin layers of water is able to store and deliver energy much more quickly than the same material that doesn't include the water layers. The finding raises some interesting questions about the behavior of liquids when confined at this scale and holds promise for shaping future energy-storage technologies.
A team of researchers has managed to generate cartilage tissue by printing stem cells using a 3-D-bioprinter. The fact that the stem cells survived being printed in this manner is a success in itself. In addition, the research team was able to influence the cells to multiply and differentiate to form chondrocytes (cartilage cells) in the printed structure.
The gelatinous jaw of a sea worm, which becomes hard or flexible depending on the environment around it, has inspired researchers to develop a new material that can be applied to soft robotics. Despite having the texture of a gel, this compound is endowed with great mechanical resistance and consistency, and is able to adapt to changing environments.
Price peaks of wheat on the world market are mainly caused by production shocks such as induced for example by droughts, researchers found. These shocks get exacerbated by low storage levels as well as protective trade policies, the analysis of global data deriving from the US Department of Agriculture shows. In contrast to widespread assumptions, neither speculation across stock or commodity markets nor land-use for biofuel production were decisive for annual wheat price changes in the past fou
Astronomers have modeled the two rings around Chariklo, the smallest body in the Solar System known to have rings. This is the first time an entire ring system has been simulated using realistic sizes for the ring particles. The simulation revealed that the ring particles are much smaller than predicted or that an undiscovered shepherd satellite around Chariklo is stabilizing the ring.
Reading supportive comments, 'likes' and private messages from social media friends prior to taking a test may help college students who have high levels of test-anxiety significantly reduce their nervousness and improve their scores, a new study suggests.
Researchers have used a nanosecond pulsed electric field to extract hydrocarbons from microalgae. By using the shorter duration pulse, they were able to extract a large amount of hydrocarbons from the microalgae in a shorter amount of time, using less energy, and in a more efficient manner than current methods.
Forget high-speed cameras capturing 100,000 images per second. A research group has developed a camera that can film at a rate equivalent to five trillion images per second, or events as short as 0.2 trillionths of a second. This is faster than has previously been possible.
A newly discovered molecule increases appetite during fasting, and decreases it during gorging. The neuron-exciting protein, named NPGL - apparently aims to maintain body mass at a constant, come feast or famine. An evolutionary masterstroke, but not great news for those looking to trim down, or beef up for the summer.
While increased carbon dioxide levels theoretically boost the productivity of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the world's oceans, because of its 'fertilizing' effect, a new study reveals how increasingly acidic seawater featuring higher levels of this gas can overwhelm these benefits, hampering the essential service these bacteria provide for marine life.
Individuals with a slender lower face are about 25 percent more likely to be left-handed. This unexpected finding was identified in 13,536 individuals who participated in three national surveys conducted in the United States. This association may shed new light on the origins of left-handedness, as slender jaws have also been associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis, a disease that has shaped human evolution and which today affects 2 billion people.
Tackling complex biomedical research increasingly requires the development of new approaches to facilitate innovative, creative and impactful discoveries. A group of scientists shows that a team science approach is critical to solving complex biomedical problems and advancing discoveries in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of human disease.
The first study illustrating the safety and efficacy of endoscopic needle-knife therapy for intestinal strictures in patients with inflammatory bowel disorder has been released by physicians. The results appear to be promising.
Special 'nugget-producing' bacteria may hold the key to more efficient processing of gold ore, mine tailings and recycled electronics, as well as aid in exploration for new deposits, research has shown.
A newly-created prognostic tool reliably predicts the recurrence of parathyroid cancer, enabling physicians to identify patients at the highest risk. Consequently, the tool also helps to determine the optimum postoperative strategy, including aggressive surveillance and additional treatments, according to study results.
Overweight and obese individuals with early stage type 2 diabetes (T2D) had more severe and progressive abnormalities in brain structure and cognition compared to normal-weight study participants, research indicates.
Researchers have developed a risk calculator that estimates the risk of kidney failure after donation. Overall risk was low, but black race and male sex were associated with increased risks of developing kidney failure in living kidney donors. Older age was associated with greater kidney failure risk in nonblack donors, but not in in black donors. Higher BMI and a close biological relationship to the recipient were also associated with increased risks of kidney failure.
Men over 50 have a higher risk than the general population of developing melanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, so they need to keep a sharp eye out for signs of the disease. Many women in this age group, however, would attest that they're more likely than their male partners to notice suspicious spots on the skin — which means women could help save their male partners' lives by helping them spot skin cancer.
Francisco Goya is the most important Spanish artist of the late 18th and early 19th century. In 1793, Goya, then 46, came down with a severe, undiagnosed illness. His hearing never returned. Now, a hearing expert has developed a diagnosis. She thinks Goya likely suffered from an autoimmune disease.
Bacterial symbionts transition between plant pathogenicity and insect defensive mutualism, a new report demonstrates. The bacterium Burkholderia gladioli lives in specific organs of a plant-feeding beetle and defends the insect's eggs from detrimental fungi by producing antibiotics. However, when transferred to a plant, the bacterium can spread throughout the tissues and negatively affect the plant.
Yersinia pestis, the bacterium that causes bubonic plague, can survive within the ubiquitous soil protozoan, the amoeba, by producing proteins that protect against the latter microbe's digestion, report scientists.
A method to rapidly trigger the universal tagging of proteins being produced by a cell has now been discovered by researchers. The tagging can be turned on like a switch, which enables researchers to acquire a snapshot of proteins being produced by a cell at a given time.
A gene previously identified as critical for tumor growth in many human cancers also maintains intestinal stem cells and encourages the growth of cells that support them, according to results of a study. The finding adds to evidence for the intimate link between stem cells and cancer, and advances prospects for regenerative medicine and cancer treatments.
Food insecurity (FI) affects nearly 795 million people worldwide. Although a complex phenomenon encompassing food availability, affordability, utilization, and even the social norms that define acceptable ways to acquire food, FI can affect people's health beyond its impact on nutrition. A new study determined that FI was associated with poorer mental health and specific psychosocial stressors across global regions (149 countries), independent of individuals' socioeconomic status.
A gene has been identified that allows neurons that release serotonin to evenly spread their branches throughout the brain. Without this gene, these branches become entangled, leading to haphazard serotonin distribution, and signs of depression in mice. These observations shed light on how neuronal wiring is critical to overall brain health, while also revealing a promising new research focus for psychiatric disorders associated with serotonin imbalance -- such as depression, bipolar disorder, s
p38? is a protein involved in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, among other pathological conditions. A new study provides a deeper understanding of the structure of this protein, thereby paving the way for the development of more effective inhibitors. These findings are the result of combining fundamental biological data using computational techniques.
Experts will explore how an artificial vision system inspired by the human eye could be used by robots of the future -- opening up new possibilities for securing footage from deep forests, war zones and even distant planets.
Girls start believing they aren't good at math, science and even computers at a young age -- but providing fun STEM activities at school and home may spark interest and inspire confidence, suggests a new study.
An ingestible electronic capsule, complete with a capsule-sized antenna capable of receiving a radio signal wirelessly, can safely power a device in the gastrointestinal tract in preclinical models, investigators report.
On 27 April 2017, the European Commission published the Urban Water Atlas for Europe. The publication - the first of its kind - shows how different water management choices, as well as other factors such as waste management, climate change and even our food preferences, affect the long-term sustainability of water use in our cities.
Scientists have recreated and characterized the process of acquisition of resistance to chemotherapy in orthotopic animal models of breast cancer, unveiling the possibility of reversing this resistance after a period of rest from the treatment.
Children in low-income families have an increased chance of thriving when their caregiver relationships include certain positive characteristics, according to new research. Using data from more than 2,200 low-income families surveyed as part of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, researchers found that school-age children who reported high levels of parent involvement and supervision were more likely to report behaviors associated with positive emotional development and social growth
Medically active substances are normally distributed via the blood -- either directly by injection into the bloodstream or indirectly, for example through the digestive tract after oral administration. In many diseases, however, it is of decisive importance to transport the active substance as efficiently as possible to the required target site. An example of this is the treatment of multiple sclerosis, where the pharmaceutical agents have to produce their effect above all in the central nervous
Big leaps in technology require big leaps in design -- entirely new approaches that can take full advantage of everything the technology has to offer. That's the thinking behind a new initiative at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory.
Although people living in consumer-based cultures such as the US often believe that they will be happier if they acquire more money, the findings of a newly published paper suggest that there may be downsides to this pursuit.
Some mushrooms produce long-chain unsaturated carboxylic acids as their chemical defense against insect larvae. The biosynthesis of these polyenes relies on only one enzyme, as scientists have now discovered. They report the unprecedented multiple double-bond-shifting activity by the enzyme, which is representative of a yet uncharacterized phylogenetic clade of polyketide synthases.
The molecule CD103 is key to the long-term residence of T cells in the skin and to their anti-tumor function, reports a collaborative team of researchers. This finding supplements the ground-breaking discovery that T cells residing in the skin are responsible for a potent anti-tumor response against melanoma.
A new article describes the discovery, and biological profiling, of an exciting new anti-malarial clinical drug candidate, MMV390048, effective against resistant strains of the malaria parasite, and across the entire parasite lifecycle, with the potential to cure and protect in a single dose.
Two new species of African mole-rat have been discovered by researchers. The species, formally described as Fukomys hanangensis and Fukomys livingstoni, were found around Mount Hanang and at Ujiji on the shores of Lake Tanganyika, both in Tanzania.
Many Canadian lakes can provide new insights into ancient oceans, a team of researchers has discovered, and these findings could advance research about greenhouse gas emissions, harmful algal blooms, and early life forms.
A new theoretical framework has been developed to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier' - the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. The team demonstrates that these computations can be performed with near-term, intermediate, quantum computers.
Little is known about which specific areas of the brain contribute to a patient's epileptic network or the roles these different areas play. As a group of researchers now reports one way to get closer to the complex wiring of the human brain is by merging concepts from a timed-based synchronization theory and space-based network theory to construct functional brain networks.
Substances produced by a harmful bacterium in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients may enhance the growth of other bacteria that, in turn, inhibit the harmful bacterium's biofilm, according to new research.
Less than half of Americans can recognize anxiety. Most people don't know what to do about depression even when they spot it. And nearly 8 in 10 don't recognize prescription drug abuse as a treatable problem.
School bullies and their victims are more likely to want plastic surgery than other teens, according to new research. 11.5% of bullying victims have extreme desire to have cosmetic surgery, as well as 3.4% of bullies and 8.8% of teenagers who both bully and are bullied, compared with less than 1% of those who are unaffected by bullying, the study concludes.
Scientists have looked at all 14,500 participants in Children of the 90s and found that if a girl's maternal grandmother smoked during pregnancy, the girl is 67 percent more likely to display certain traits linked to autism, such as poor social communication skills and repetitive behaviors.
A collaborative team of researchers has proven the theory that, while resistance to targeted treatment in cancer is truly a moving target, there are opportunities to overcome the resistance that develops.
Researchers have found that a single measurement of GCD59, a novel biomarker for diabetes, at weeks 24-28 of gestation identified, with high sensitivity and specificity, women who failed the glucose challenge test as well as women with gestational diabetes. It was also associated with the probability of delivering a large-for-gestational-age newborn.
The collection of microbial species found in the human body varies from person to person, and new research suggests that a significant part of this variation can be explained by variability in shared resources available to the microbes.
Every year, worldwide wine industry suffers losses of more than ten billion US dollars from damaged assets, production losses, and lost profits due to extreme weather events and natural disasters. A multidisciplinary team examined the extent to which regions are affected by the risks and how climate change influences wine industry.
For the first time, researchers have measured the force that draws tiny crystals together and visualized how they swivel and align. Called van der Waals forces, the attraction provides insights into how crystals self-assemble, an activity that occurs in a wide range of cases in nature, from rocks to shells to bones.
Expectant mothers need not be concerned that they are more prone to develop melanoma, or will have a worse prognosis if they do get this serious skin cancer, than women who are not pregnant, according to a study.