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ScienceDaily -- the Internet's premier science news web site -- brings you the latest discoveries in science, health & medicine, the environment, space, technology, and computers, from the world's leading universities and research institutions. Updated several times a day, Science Daily also offers free search of its archive of more than 80,000 stories, as well as related articles, images, videos, books, and journal references in hundreds of different topics, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, mathematics, physics, and more.
The multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy alemtuzumab can trigger severe, unpredictable side effects. Scientists report on two patients for whom the infusion of alemtuzumab significantly worsened symptoms. The team also describes a treatment that successfully curbed the harmful side effects.
Researchers have developed a general framework to design reconfigurable metamaterials. The design strategy is scale independent, meaning it can be applied to everything from meter-scale architectures to reconfigurable nano-scale systems such as photonic crystals, waveguides and metamaterials to guide heat.
With the ever-growing popularity of women's soccer, attention to sports-related concussions is also a growing concern. High school female soccer players incur a higher concussion rate than males, and researchers noticed in photographs of female soccer players, the players often had their eyes closed. They wanted to quantify whether female athletes closed their eyes more frequently than male counterparts, as a first step toward determining if less visual awareness might expose players to a higher
When hospitalized, people can become acutely confused and disorientated. This condition, known as delirium, affects a quarter of older patients and new research shows it may have long-lasting consequences, including accelerating the dementia process.
Modern genome sequencing methods used to measure the efficiency of synthesis of individual protein during cell division has found that the enzymes that make lipids and membranes were synthesized at much greater efficiency when a cell is ready to split.
While most of us haven't heard of astrocytes, these cells are four times as plentiful in the human brain as nerve cells. Now, a team led by researchers has found that astrocytes, which perform many indispensable functions in the brain, can take on a villainous character, destroying nerve cells and likely driving many neurodegenerative diseases.
What's in a face? In addition to their plumage, Pukeko -- large purple swamphens found in New Zealand -- convey information about their status through their faces. A new study shows that the strongest predictor of male dominance in Pukeko is the size of their frontal shield, a fleshy ornament on their bill that can change quickly.
For decades, scientists have theorized that the movement of Earth's tectonic plates is driven largely by negative buoyancy created as they cool. New research, however, shows plate dynamics are driven significantly by the additional force of heat drawn from the Earth's core. The new findings also challenge the theory that underwater mountain ranges known as mid-ocean ridges are passive boundaries between moving plates. The findings show the East Pacific Rise, the Earth's dominant mid-ocean ridge,
Research used anonymous Facebook data from almost 17 million social connections in 55 countries to determine that the role of weak and strong ties in job searches is important around the world, but the value of a single strong tie is even more important for job seekers in countries with pronounced income inequality.
Cancer cells often delete genes that normally suppress tumor formation. These deletions also may extend to neighboring genes, an event known as 'collateral lethality,' which may create new options for development of therapies for several cancers.
Sea lion hunting by the Europeans at the Atlantic coasts of South America - it started in the 19th Century and continued up to the second half of the 20th century in Argentina and Uruguay - changed its nutrition guidelines of these pinnipeds as well as the structure of the coastal trophic network, according to new research.
Mobile phone, computer and TV displays all use very expensive color filters and other components, which cannot be easily recycled. Scientists have designed a new screen, which is cheaper and ecological as it uses a hybrid material. This material's luminescent proteins can be used in backlighting systems and color filters made using a 3-D printing technique.
The average anesthesiologist, emergency physician, pathologist and radiologist charge more than four times what Medicare pays for similar services, often leaving privately insured consumers stuck with surprise medical bills that are much higher than they anticipated, new research suggests.
Scientists are planning to send a deep-space probe to a metal asteroid, enabling them to see what is believed to be a planetary core. Psyche, an asteroid orbiting the sun between Mars and Jupiter, is made almost entirely of nickel-iron metal.
The technique that the hepatitis E virus -- an emerging liver virus historically found in developing countries but now on the rise in Europe -- uses to spread could present a weak spot scientists can exploit to treat the disease, according to a new study.
An ambitious, emergency plan to help save the vaquita porpoise from extinction in the northern Gulf of California has been recommended by the International Committee for the Recovery of the Vaquita (CIRVA). The plan involves relocating some of the remaining vaquitas to a temporary sanctuary, while crucial efforts aimed at eliminating illegal fishing and removing gillnets from their environment continue.
Researchers have made a ground-breaking discovery revealing new molecular information on how the brain regulates depression and anxiety. In so doing, they identified a new molecule that alleviates anxiety and depressive behavior in rodents.
A team of scientists was able to characterize a new genetic immunodeficiency resulting from a mutation in a gene named STAT2. This mutation causes patients to be extremely vulnerable to normally mild childhood illnesses such as rotavirus and enterovirus. The comprehensive analysis of the genetic defect allows clinicians to provide children with the proper therapies before illnesses prove fatal.
Scientists and policymakers rely on complex computer simulations called Integrated Assessment Models to figure out how to address climate change. But these models need tinkering to make them more accurate.
An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made by researchers in Germany. The team of scientists has now shown how to manipulate the electric vacuum field and thus generate deviations from the ground state of empty space which can only be understood in the context of the quantum theory of light.
A new pathway in the body that stimulates liver repair has been uncovered by researchers. Using an experimental model of high-dosage acetaminophen, the team found that liver injury activated blood clotting, which then stimulated liver repair.
A new study has focused on the effects of exercise and physical activity on postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking AIs -- hormone-therapy drugs that stop the production of estrogen. The work concludes that a combination of resistance and aerobic exercise helps mitigate the side effects of AIs and improves health outcomes in breast cancer survivors, particularly their body composition.
Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are tumors that arise is the wall of the digestive tract, and most often occur in the stomach or small intestine. Though more common in later in life, GISTs can occur in adolescents and young adults (AYA) under 40 years old as well. Researchers report findings from the first population-based analysis of AYA patients with GIST.
A study of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB)in KwaZulu province, South Africa, builds on a growing body of evidence showing person-to-person transmission, not just inadequate treatment, is driving the spread of XDR TB.
Preclinical research shows that the tumor-promoting properties of neuropilin-2 reside predominantly on isoform NRP2b, while NRP2a has the opposite effects in non-small cell lung cancer. In mouse models, NRP2a inhibited tumor cell proliferation, while NRP2b promoted metastasis and progression. This new understanding may lead to improved therapies that specifically target NRP2b, while sparing the tumor-inhibiting functions of NRP2a.
Coastal countries are highly prone to sea-level rise, which leads to salt-water intrusion and increased salinity levels in agricultural land. Also typical for these regions are floods and waterlogging caused by cyclones and typhoons, as well as prolonged drought periods.
In any given second, thousands of immune cells are poking holes in your blood vessels as they travel out of the blood stream to survey your organs for problems or join the fight against a pathogen. Despite the constant assault, the damage is negligible.
Earth's 2016 surface temperatures were the warmest since modern recordkeeping began in 1880, according to independent analyses by NASA and NOAA. This makes 2016 the third year in a row to set a new record for global average surface temperatures.
Treatment for certain diabetes cases involves constant monitoring of blood-glucose levels and daily insulin shots. But scientists are now developing a painless 'smart' patch that monitors blood glucose and releases insulin when levels climb too high. The device has been tested on mice.
A strong short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives allowing ever fastest write-read magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load, researchers report.
The world relies heavily on gasoline and other hydrocarbons to power its cars and trucks. In search of an alternative fuel type, some researchers are turning to the stuff of fireworks and explosives: metal powders. And now one team is reporting a method to produce a metal nanopowder fuel with high energy content that is stable in air and doesn't go boom until ignited.
Hunting dogs such as the popular breed retriever are ideally suited for retrieving birds or small game. However, the weight the dogs carry strains their locomotor system. A motion study has shown that the dogs tilt forwards like a seesaw when they carry the prey in their mouths. This can make already existing joint and tendon damage worse. Therefore, adjusted weights should be used for the training of puppies and adult dogs. Furthermore, the joints should be checked regularly by specialists.
The first online, interactive 'nutrition label' for financial products has been developed. Like the ubiquitous information nutrition panels on food and packaged goods, it is simple, easy to read and uncluttered. What's more, the financial label is interactive, allowing people to easily get a sense of the long-term implications of choices they make today.
A new model reconstruction shows in exceptional detail the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet during the last ice age. This can help scientists understand how climate and ocean warming can effect the remaining ice masses on Earth.
Bones from dead turtles washed up on Mexican beaches indicate that Baja California is critical to the survival of endangered North Pacific loggerhead sea turtles, which travel some 7,500 miles from their nesting sites in Japan to their feeding grounds off the coast of Mexico.
Emissions of methane, a potent climate-warming gas, in the San Francisco Bay Area may be roughly twice as high as official estimates, with most of it coming from biological sources, such as landfills, but natural gas leakage also being an important source, according to a new study,
A new model reconstruction shows in exceptional detail the evolution of the Eurasian ice sheet during the last ice age. This can help scientists understand how climate and ocean warming can affect the remaining ice masses on Earth.
Like cosmic lighthouses sweeping the universe with bursts of energy, pulsars have fascinated and baffled astronomers since they were first discovered 50 years ago. In two studies, international teams of astronomers suggest that recent images from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory of two pulsars -- Geminga and B0355+54 -- may help shine a light on the distinctive emission signatures of pulsars, as well as their often perplexing geometry.
In many developing countries, economic growth and deforestation seem to go hand in hand -- but the links are not well understood. In a new study, researchers use an innovative methodology to quantify the relationship.
New technologies are developed at a rapid pace, often reaching the marketplace before policymakers can determine how or whether they should be governed. Now researchers have developed a model that can be used to assess emerging synthetic biology products, well before they are ready for the market, to determine what needs to be done to inform future policies.
In mouse models of Rett syndrome -- which in humans is seen overwhelmingly in females -- researchers have demonstrated how failure of Mecp2, the mouse equivalent of the human gene of the same name, has biological consequences that prevent adult females from learning how to gather newborn pups in the days immediately following the pups' birth. They reversed the defect.
When it comes to predators, the biggest mouths may not take the biggest bite. According to a new study from bioscientists, some predators have their greatest ecological impacts before they reach adulthood.
For the first time, it is now possible to produce functional OLED electrodes from graphene. The OLEDs can, for example, be integrated into touch displays, and the miracle material graphene promises many other applications for the future.
Elderly women who sit for more than 10 hours a day with low physical activity have cells that are biologically older than their chronological age by eight years compared to women who are less sedentary, research shows.
Opioids are the most powerful painkillers. Researchers have now found that the analgesic effects of opioids are not exclusively mediated by opioid receptors in the brain, but can also be mediated via the activation of receptors in immune cells.
Farming doesn't always have to be harmful to bees: Even though farmers on the Mexican peninsula of Yucatan traditionally slash-and-burn forest to create small fields, this practice can be beneficial to sweat bees by creating attractive habitats. The farmers profit also since they depend on bees to pollinate their habanero chillies.
A new study presents an unorthodox approach to protect the privacy of genomic data, showing how optimal trade-offs between privacy risk and scientific utility can be struck as genomic data are released for research. The framework can be used to suppress just enough genomic data to persuade would-be snoops that their best privacy attacks will be unprofitable.
Two unique molecules have been discovered by researchers in a species of lichen growing in northern Quebec. A number of compounds with interesting antibacterial properties have also been isolated from the lichen, according to an article.
Fixing flaws introduced during the machining of large components used in the aircraft and heavy equipment industries can be time-consuming for manufacturers - and costly if they must scrap the flawed parts after they've been fabricated. A new approach is helping manufacturers eliminate those flaws before the parts are created.
Research in mice points to better understanding of how the structure of nerve cells in the adult hippocampus may deteriorate, which can lead to Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders, report researchers.
Fruit flies -- the tiny insects that swarm our kitchens over the summer months -- exhibit rational decision making when selecting mates, according to new research. Scientists observed different combinations of fruit flies mate about 2,700 times, and were surprised to discover that male flies almost always pick the female mate that would produce the most offspring. The study provides the first evidence that fruit flies are capable of making rational choices.
We often assume that highly gifted children always perform at maximum capacity. However, new research shows that this group also benefits from training and explanation. Strangely enough, the benefits are the same for both groups.
Biologists tested a variation of the reproductive ground plan hypothesis in solitary, ground-nesting bees of south central Washington State. Their findings could shed light on development of division of labor in social bees.
Long-term heavy use of alcohol in adolescence alters cortical excitability and functional connectivity in the brain, according to a new study. These alterations were observed in physically and mentally healthy but heavy-drinking adolescents, who nevertheless did not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for a substance abuse disorder.
A study of viewing audiences shows that the television programs most effective at imparting an educational message about social behaviors are the ones that keep people watching engaged and coming back for more.
In research that could one day lead to advances against neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, engineering researchers have demonstrated a technique for precisely measuring the properties of individual protein molecules floating in a liquid.
An FDA-approved drug has been identified that can create the elusive and beneficial brown fat. Mice treated with the drug had more brown fat, faster metabolisms, and lower body weight gain, even after being fed a high-calorie diet. The researchers say the technique, which uses cellular reprogramming, could be a new way to combat obesity and type II diabetes.
Researchers have made a discovery in materials science that sounds like something from the old Saturday morning cartoon Super Friends: they've found a way to deactivate 'nano twins' to improve the high-temperature properties of superalloys that are used in jet engines.
Researchers showed that the mevalonate pathway is essential for embryonic development by promoting primitive streak formation, a key landmark for establishing embryo symmetry and gastrulation. The pathway induces farnesylation of lamin-B, which is implicated in inducing expression of primitive streak genes. The findings expand understanding of how embryos transition from a featureless ball of cells into a hollow, three-layered gastrula.
Researchers have released the largest-ever single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset of genetic variations in poplar trees, information useful to plant scientists as well as researchers in the fields of biofuels, materials science, and secondary plant metabolism.
In future, it may be possible to use nanofibres to improve the attachment of bone implants, or the fibers may be used directly to scaffold bone regeneration. This would aid the healing of fractures and may enable the care of osteoporosis. This is detailed in a new dissertation.
Red yeast rice (RYR) is contained in dietary supplements that are often used by patients with high cholesterol, and it is often proposed as an alternative therapy in those who experience side effects from statins. A new study found that it is not a good choice for statin-intolerant patients: RYR was linked with muscle and liver injury, which can also occur with statin use.
Expect strong increases in rainfall during extreme precipitation events in Australia as a result of global warming making Dorothy Mackellar's now classic view of Australia as a country of droughts and flooding rains truer than ever.
For the first time, by using a path-breaking optical imaging technique to pinpoint cholesterol's location and movement within the cell membrane, chemists have made the surprising finding that cholesterol is a signaling molecule that transmits messages across the cell membrane.
Most people who have tried durian either love it or hate it. The fruit's yellowish flesh is sweet and custard-like, but it comes with an overpowering stench of garbage. Scientists studying the unique fruit have now analyzed a set of 20 stinky and fruity chemical ingredients and found that a mere two compounds can re-create the overall smell.
In a new study, researchers are investigating why hair is incredibly strong and resistant to breaking. The findings could lead to the development of new materials for body armor and help cosmetic manufacturers create better hair care products.
How Americans view social mobility affects their willingness to defend the basic underpinnings of American society -- such as social and economic policies, laws, and institutions -- psychologists have found.