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ScienceDaily -- the Internet's premier science news web site -- brings you the latest discoveries in science, health & medicine, the environment, space, technology, and computers, from the world's leading universities and research institutions. Updated several times a day, Science Daily also offers free search of its archive of more than 80,000 stories, as well as related articles, images, videos, books, and journal references in hundreds of different topics, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, engineering, geology, mathematics, physics, and more.
For parents, storing their newborn baby's umbilical cord blood is a way to preserve potentially lifesaving cells. Now, a group of researchers has found a way to expand and preserve certain cord-blood cells as a potential treatment for type 1 diabetes.
Nearly 1,000 feet below the bed of the Dead Sea, scientists have found evidence that during past warm periods, the Mideast has suffered drought on scales never recorded by humans -- a possible warning for current times. Thick layers of crystalline salt show that rainfall plummeted to as little as a fifth of modern levels some 120,000 years ago, and again about 10,000 years ago.
A medical team has developed a way to effectively provide a large group of people with basic knowledge and skills to locate and use bleeding control equipment to stop life-threatening bleeding in severely injured people.
Scientists have succeeded in 'filming' inter-molecular chemical reactions - using the electron beam of a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as a stop-frame imaging tool. They have also discovered that the electron beam can be simultaneously tuned to stimulate specific chemical reactions by using it as a source of energy as well as an imaging tool.
A new transformative approach to defining, studying and treating Parkinson's disease has been revealed by investigators. Rather than approaching Parkinson's disease as a single entity, the international cadre of researchers advocates targeting therapies to distinct 'nodes or clusters' of patients based on specific symptoms or molecular features of their disease.
Despite worldwide progress since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO-FCTC) came into effect in 2005, not all key demand-reduction measures have been fully implemented at the same pace, but doing so could reduce tobacco use even further, say researchers.
In a vulnerable forest in southeastern Brazil, where the air was once thick with the guttural chatter of brown howler monkeys, there now exists silence. Yellow fever, a virus carried by mosquitoes and endemic to Africa and South America, has robbed the private, federally-protected reserve of its brown howlers in an unprecedented wave of death that has swept through the region since late 2016, killing thousands of monkeys.
Membrane fusion lies at the heart of many cell functions—from the secretion of antibodies to the release of neurotransmitters. For more than two decades, one view of the process by which membrane fusion occurs has been accepted as dogma; now recent studies indicate that fusion is more complex. These discoveries are being regarded by at least one leading cell biologist as "textbook changing" and could alter how we develop drugs that affect membrane fusion activities.
A survey of more than 422,000 college freshmen found that students who identified as transgender were more likely than their cisgender peers to experience negative consequences from drinking, including memory blackouts, academic problems and conflicts such as arguments or physical fights.
Egyptologists have discovered rock art from the 4th millennium BC during an excavation at a necropolis near Aswan in Egypt. The paintings were engraved into the rock in the form of small dots and depict hunting scenes like those found in shamanic depictions. They may represent a link between the Neolithic period and Ancient Egyptian culture. The discovery earned the scientists the award for one of the current ten most important archeological discoveries in Egypt from the Minister of Antiquities
Studies of wolf spiders found that courtship displays help preserve genetic isolation between closely related species. Another study found that the species Gladicosa bellamyi used multi-modal communication to entice females.
Patients who underwent ambulatory breast reconstruction and used a mobile app for follow-up care had fewer in-person visits during the first 30 days after the operation without affecting complication rates or measures of patient-reported satisfaction, according to a study.
Solar cells and photodetectors could soon be made from new types of materials based on semiconductor quantum dots, thanks to new insights based on ultrafast measurements capturing real-time photoconversion processes.
It's not every day someone gets to say, 'I've discovered a new species.' It's a claim that biologist Chris Funk can happily make. Funk and collaborators, who've spent years exploring the tropical climes of South America to study the region's dizzying biodiversity, have documented a new species of rainfrog they've named the Ecuadorian rainfrog (Pristimantis ecuadorensis).
Researchers have developed the next step in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with the first micro-scale self-sustaining cell, which generated power for 13 straight days through symbiotic interactions of two types of bacteria.
A new study has traced the Pavlovian response to a small cluster of brain cells -- the same neurons that go awry during Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome. The research could one day help neuroscientists find new approaches to diagnosing and treating these disorders.
More than a century of theory about the evolutionary history of dinosaurs has been turned on its head following the publication of new research. The work suggests that the family groupings need to be rearranged, redefined and renamed and also that dinosaurs may have originated in the northern hemisphere rather than the southern, as current thinking goes.
The Saiga Antelope, which is currently threatened with extinction, used to be much more flexible in its habitat and food choices in the past than previously assumed, scientists have discovered. Based on carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the collagen from the antelopes' bones, the scientists compared the diets of fossil versus modern-day Saiga. In their study, they reached the conclusion that today's populations are not obligatorily bound to their current habitat. This insight offers new hope f...
Satellites have been mapping the upper part of the Earth magnetic field by collecting data for three years and found some amazing features about the Earth's crust. The result is the release of highest resolution map of this field seen from space to date. This 'lithospheric magnetic field' is very weak and therefore difficult to detect and map from space. But with the Swarm satellites it has been possible.
Technology under development will provide a non-invasive approach for diagnosing prostate cancer and tracking the disease's progression. It could enable doctors to determine how cancer patients are responding to different treatments without needing to perform invasive biopsies.
The Ebola virus causes a severe, often fatal illness when it infects the human body. Initially targeting cells of the immune system called macrophages, white blood cells that absorb and clear away pathogens, a new study has found a way to potentially 'silence' these Ebola virus-infected macrophages.
Of all pets, cats are often considered the most difficult ones to medicate. Very small minitablets with flavors or flavor coatings can help cat owners commit to the treatment and make cats more compliant to it, while making it easier to regulate dosage and administer medication flexibly.
Researchers face a fundamental challenge as they seek to scale up human tissue regeneration from small lab samples to full-size tissues and organs: how to establish a vascular system that delivers blood deep into the developing tissue. Researchers have now successfully turned to plants, culturing beating human heart cells on spinach leaves that were stripped of plant cells.
100% natural, 100% gluten free - get ready for the battle of the grain. Researchers have resolved the science behind a new bread-baking recipe. The method for making gluten-free bread uses rice-flour to produce bread with a similar consistency and volume to traditional wheat-flour loaves.
A four-year study of one rare and one common lupine growing in coastal dunes showed that a native mouse steals most of the rare lupines seeds while they are still attached to the plant. The mouse is a 'subsidized species,' given cover for nocturnal forays by European beachgrass, originally planted to stabilize the dunes.
The earliest mutations of human life have been observed by researchers. Analyzing genomes from adult cells, the scientists could look back in time to reveal how each embryo developed. The study shows that from the two-cell stage of the human embryo, one of these cells becomes more dominant than the other and leads to a higher proportion of the adult body.
Extraordinary decontamination efforts are underway in areas affected by the 2011 nuclear accidents in Japan. The creation of total radioactivity maps is essential for thorough cleanup, but the most common methods do not 'see' enough ground-level radiation.
A molecule found in car engine exhaust fumes that is thought to have contributed to the origin of life on Earth has made astronomers heavily underestimate the amount of stars that were forming in the early Universe, a study has found. That molecule is called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon. On Earth it is also found in coal and tar. In space, it is a component of dust.
Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. The study reports a technique to bypass the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. This technique hides quantum uncertainty in atomic features not seen by the instrument, allowing the scientists to make very high precision measurements.
A new molecule that induces the formation of abnormal blood vessels in the eyes of diabetic mice has been discovered by researchers. Their study suggests that inhibiting this molecule may prevent similarly aberrant blood vessels from damaging the vision of not only diabetics, but also premature infants.
Tropical rainforests are one of the most species-rich areas on earth. Thousands of animal and plant species live there. The smaller microbial protists, which are not visible to the naked eye, are also native to these forests, where they live in the soils and elsewhere. A team of researchers has examined them more closely by analyzing their DNA. They discovered many unknown species, including many parasites, which may contribute to the stability of rainforest ecosystems.
In some people whose cognitive functions are weakened due to Alzheimer's, the disease can be traced back to changes in the brain's blood vasculature. Scientists have found that a protein involved in blood clotting and inflammation might offer a potential path to new drugs.
Neuroscientists have discovered a brain circuit that responds to rewarding events. Scientists have long believed that the central amygdala, a structure located deep within the brain, is linked with fear and responses to unpleasant events, but the new study finds that most of the neurons here are involved in the reward circuit.
Images returned from the European Space Agency's Rosetta mission indicate the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko was a very active place during its most recent trip through the solar system, says a new study.
It's well known that excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have a lasting negative impact on the health of a mother and her baby. A new study finds that for young mothers (women who gave birth between the ages of 15 and 24), pre-pregnancy body mass index, or BMI, and ethnicity might signal a likelihood for obesity later in life.
Researchers present a system for testing new traffic management protocols that requires no alteration to network hardware but still works at realistic speeds -- 20 times as fast as networks of software-controlled routers.
The Arctic sea ice maximum extent and Antarctic minimum extent are both record lows this year. Combined, sea ice numbers are at their lowest point since satellites began to continuously measure sea ice in 1979.
Transmission of infections with HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis or rubella from mother to child before and during birth as well as in infancy still occur across Europe -- despite existing prevention methods. A new report outlines the cornerstones for effective antenatal screening programs across the EU/EEA countries.
Osteoporosis affects more than 200 million people worldwide and is a serious public health concern, according to research. Now, newly published work is the first in men to show that long-term, weight-bearing exercises decrease sclerostin, a protein made in the bone, and increase IGF-1, a hormone associated with bone growth. These changes promote bone formation, increasing bone density.
Ants are hardworking and beneficial insects, research reveals. In the activities of their daily lives, ants help increase air, water flow, and organic matter in soil. The work done by ants even forms a type of mulch that helps hold water in the soil.
Day of the week did not affect the survival chances of people undergoing emergency surgery, research in Scotland has found. The findings challenge the results of previous studies, which had suggested that those who undergo elective surgery at the end of the week are at a greater risk of dying.
Since a couple of decades, metal-containing drugs have been successfully used to fight against certain types of cancer. The lack of knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms slows down the search for new and more efficient chemotherapeutic agents. Scientists have now developed a protocol that is able to detect how metal-based drugs interact with DNA.
There's a reason why farmers wear protective gear when applying organophosphate pesticides. The substances are very effective at getting rid of unwanted bugs, but they can also make people sick. Related compounds -- organophosphate nerve agents -- can be used as deadly weapons. Now researchers have developed a fast way to detect the presence of such compounds in the field using a disposable 'lab-on-a-glove.'
When monitoring Parkinson's disease, SPECT imaging of the brain is used for acquiring information on the dopamine activity. A new study shows that the dopamine activity observed in SPECT imaging does not reflect the number of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, as previously assumed.
The incidence of asthma is increasing steadily. One of the reasons given for this rise is the excessive level of hygiene in our environment. Studies have indeed shown that exposure to a so-called "non-hygienic" environment, rich in microbes, plays a protective role against the development of allergies, including asthma. New research shows that exposure to bacterial DNA drastically amplifies a population of pulmonary macrophages and makes them strongly immunosuppressive, which prevents and treats
The brains of those who are born blind make new connections in the absence of visual information, resulting in enhanced, compensatory abilities such as a heightened sense of hearing, smell and touch, as well as cognitive functions (such as memory and language) according to a new study.
Consumption of the synthetic drug MDPV - a powerful psychostimulant known as 'cannibal drug'- in adolescence, can increase vulnerability of cocaine addiction during adulthood, according to a study carried out with laboratory animals.
Researchers have used machine learning on the Stampede supercomputer to model the cellular control network that determines how tadpoles develop. Using that model, they reverse-engineered a drug intervention that created tadpoles with a form of mixed pigmentation never before seen in nature. They plan to use the method for cancer therapies and regenerative medicine.
A 'first in human' clinical trial examining the small molecule drug ONC201 in cancer patients with advanced solid tumors shows that this investigational drug is well tolerated at the recommended phase II dose. That's according to investigators whose research also showed early signs of clinical benefit in patients with advanced prostate and endometrial cancers.
Tasty, versatile, and rich in essential omega-3 fatty acids: salmon is one of the most popular edible fish of all. Shops sell fish caught in the wild, but their main produce is salmon from breeding farms which can pollute rivers, lakes and oceans. Just how big is the problem? Scientists are working to answer this question by examining the dissolved organic compounds which enter Chile's rivers from salmon farms. They warn that these substances are placing huge strain on ecosystems and are chang...
Birds benefit from flocking together -- even when they're not of a feather. According to a new study, China's endangered crested ibises benefit from joining forces with other, more visually-oriented bird species while searching for food.
New archaeological analysis suggests people of Western Roman Empire switched between Hunnic nomadism and settled farming over a lifetime. Findings may be evidence of tribal encroachment that undermined Roman Empire during 5th century AD, contributing to its fall.
A new 430 million-year-old fossil has been discovered by scientists, and has been named in honor of Sir David Attenborough. The discovery is a unique example of its kind in the fossil record, say the authors of a new report.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an increasingly popular strategy for protecting marine biodiversity, but a new global study demonstrates that widespread lack of personnel and funds are preventing MPAs from reaching their full potential. Only 9 percent of MPAs reported having adequate staff.
Long gone are the days when a life of material excess and endless leisure time signified prestige. According to a new study, Americans increasingly perceive busy and overworked people as having high status.
When geologists went in search for evidence of ancient tsunamis along Southern California's coastal wetlands, they found something else. Their discoveries have implications for seismic hazard and risk assessment in coastal Southern California.
Surfaces that have been coated with rare earth oxides develop water-repelling properties only after contact with air. Even at room temperature, chemical reactions begin with hydrocarbons in the air. Researchers report that it is these reactions that are responsible for the hydrophobic effect.
To effectively manage a wildlife species, one of the most basic things you need to know is how many of them are out there. However, it's almost never feasible to count every single individual -- so how do the results of wildlife surveys compare to true population size? A new study tests this using the results of more than thirty years of surveys of the Rocky Mountain population of sandhill cranes.
More than 2 million procedures every year take place around the world to heal bone fractures and defects from trauma or disease, making bone the second most commonly transplanted tissue after blood. To help improve the outcomes of these surgeries, scientists have developed a new grafting material from sea urchin spines.
Mercury is very toxic and can cause long-term health damage, but removing it from water is challenging. To address this growing problem scientists have created a sponge that can absorb mercury from a polluted water source within seconds.
A new report demonstrates that an optical imaging tool used to monitor regional blood flow and tissue oxygenation may be used to track the brain's response to acute pain in infants, children, and adults.
A new rare muscle disorder has been identified by researchers. This hereditary disease is caused by a defect in the BICD2 gene that manifests itself in altered cellular transport processes in skeletal muscle cells. Patients suffer from muscle weakness in the legs, an unsteady gait and permanent risk of stumbling. BICD2 had been known as a disease trigger, but only for disorders originating in the nervous system. A BICD2 syndrome that manifests itself in altered skeletal muscles had never before
Lakes, rivers, estuaries and oceans are closely connected. Despite this, aquatic research is still divided in marine and freshwater sciences. Now, scientists from 19 leading research institutes and universities and two enterprises from 12 countries across Europe aim to change this and have joined forces in the project "AQUACOSM - Network of Leading European AQUAtic MesoCOSM Facilities Connecting Mountains to Oceans from the Arctic to the Mediterranean". The network will perform the first systema
Kids often seek answers from parents, friends and media to better understand their racial identity, suggests new research. The study's researchers sought to explain how ethnic-racial identity exploration and resolution might affect friendship networks among youth in a diverse setting, as well as their peers over time.
One treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a procedure called catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT). CDT has become more commonly used in the US since research showed it reduced the incidence of post-thrombotic syndrome. A team sought to identify and describe sex-based differences in utilization and safety outcomes of CDT for treatment of DVT in the U.S. The team found sex-based differences in both utilization and safety outcomes.
Since Dolly the Sheep was cloned, the question of whether human reproductive cloning should be banned or pursued has been the subject of international debate. Researchers argue that a robust global governance framework on human cloning should draw on recent successes in climate change and business ethics for inspiration.
Using a satnav (GPS navigation system) to get to your destination 'switches off' parts of the brain that would otherwise be used to simulate different routes, reveals new research. The study involved 24 volunteers navigating a simulation of Soho in central London while undergoing brain scans.
If a mother picks up an infection during pregnancy, her immune system will kick into action to clear the infection -- but this self-defense mechanism may also have a small influence how her child's brain develops in the womb, in ways that are similar to how the brain develops in autism spectrum disorders. Now, an international team of researchers has shown why this may be the case.
In just a few years, researchers have achieved remarkable power conversion efficiency with materials with perovskite crystal structure, comparable with the best photovoltaic materials available. Now, researchers have revealed the physics for how an important component of a perovskite solar cell works -- a finding that could lead to improved solar cells or even newer and better materials.
Standard antidepressant medications don't work for everyone, and even when they do they are slow to kick in. In an effort to find better depression treatments, researchers discovered that inhibiting an enzyme called Glyoxalase 1 (GLO1) relieves signs of depression in mice. Moreover, inhibiting GLO1 worked much faster than the conventional antidepressant Prozac.
Using a new cellular model, innovative gene therapy approaches for the hereditary immunodeficiency Chronic Granulomatous Disease can be tested faster and cost-effectively in the lab for their efficacy. A team of researchers has successfully achieved this using the 'gene-scissor' CRISPR/Cas9 technology. The aim is to treat severely affected patients in the near future using novel approaches.
In the United States, estimates show that a substantial number of children under age 5 live in households that are food insecure. That means that they do not have food, or they lack sufficient quantity or quality of food to fuel a healthy and active lifestyle. A new study has found that children who experience food insecurity in early childhood are more likely to start kindergarten less ready to learn than their peers from homes that are food secure.